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Usage Tips Volume 1    (page 1 of 4)

Topics Covered:

Local Element Coordinates
Using the Mouse Wheel
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Hoops Manipulations
LIST Operations
ODBC Reports


Local Element Coordinates

Typically piping systems are defined by specifying the delta coordinates, in the global coordinate system, of each individual element. There are however, instances where specifying the element length in some local coordinate system would be easier. Such situations include:

  • When coding a long skewed run of pipe, i.e. not aligned with global "X" or "Z".
  • When coding a long run of pipe with a slope, such as down a hill.
In addition, it may be advantageous to alter the orientation of a previously defined element, perhaps when inserting an expansion loop or correcting an error.

CAESAR II has the ability to allow the specification of element lengths and orientations using local coordinates. A portion of the piping input spreadsheet is shown at the right. Notice the button to the right of the "DY" field. Clicking on this button brings up a floating dialog which includes edit boxes for the element length, and the element direction cosines.

This floating window, can be moved over a (temporarily) unimportant area of the spreadsheet, or outside the spreadsheet completely. This local coordinate dialog box is shown in the figure to the left.

This floating dialog box can be used to specify local element coordinates in the following ways:

  • The length of an element can be specified in the length field, followed by the direction cosines. The cosines are not normalized until the spreadsheet is refreshed. An example defining an element on a 10:3 skew is shown in the figures below.
  • Once you are past the first element of the model, the local coordinate dialog box is always displayed showing the direction cosines of the current element. Coding along a skewed line simply involves specifying the element length.
  • Once the model has been defined, elements can be re-oriented by modifying their cosines.


1) Initial Element Deltas and Cosines


2) X Cosine Specified - Note change in Deltas


3) Z Cosine Specified - Note change in Deltas


4) Normalized Cosines - Note Deltas are the same

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